Extending switch for Pattern Matching

Gavin Bierman and Brian Goetz
April 2017

This document explores a possible direction for enhancements to switch in the Java language, motivated by the desire to support pattern matching. This is an exploratory document only and does not constitute a plan for any specific feature in any specific version of the Java Language.

Pattern matching documents


Java inherited its switch construct nearly wholesale from C. It was designed as a limited mechanism for limited situations; one can only switch on a small set of types, and one can only have case labels that exactly match literal constants. While its range was extended several times (switching on enums in Java 5, and strings in Java 7), the basic facility is largely unchanged from C.

As we consider extending switch to support a wider variety of types, and case labels to support patterns, it raises some new questions, such as:

It should be noted that there is a duality between switch statements and a chain of if-else statements. We can use this duality as a lens through which to evaluate the regularity of extensions to switch.


A switch statement today is one big scope; the “arms” of a switch do not constitute individual scopes, unless scoping constructs (such as introducing a new block) are explicitly used by the author.

The situation of having variable declarations arise from expressions is new, so it is a reasonable question to ask “What is the scope of of a binding variable of a pattern match?” There’s also an obvious answer — the scope of the statement that encloses the pattern match; we can just hoist variables into the scope which includes the statement which includes the match expression:

if (x matches String s) { ... }


String s;
if (x matches String s) { ... }

However, this seems like one of those “obvious but wrong” answers; there are going to be places in that scope where the variable is still not usable (because it is not definitely assigned), and it is likely that users will want to reuse the same variable name for multiple bindings in the same scope:

if (x matches Integer n) { ... }
else if (x matches Float n) { ... }
else if (x matches Double n) { ... }

(or the equivalent in a switch statement.) Having to come up with a unique name for each binding variable, just because the variable has been hoisted into a broader scope, will be unpopular (and as it turns out, unnecessary.)

Natural scoping for binding variables

The following example illustrates the that “natural” scope of a binding variables is complex and not necessarily contiguous:

if (x matches Foo(var y)) { .. y .. }                 // OK
if (x matches Foo(var y)) { ... } else { .. y .. }    // not OK
if (x matches Foo(var y) && .. y ..) { ... }          // OK
if (x matches Foo(var y) || .. y ..) { ... }          // not OK
if (!(x matches Foo(var y)) && .. y .. ) { ... }      // not OK
if (!(x matches Foo(var y)) || .. y .. ) { ... }      // OK
if (!(x matches Foo(var y))) { ... } else { .. y .. } // OK
if (!(x matches Foo(var y))) { y } else { ... }       // not OK

The above cases are derived from a standard application of definite assignment rules; we’d like for a binding variable to be in scope wherever it is definitely assigned, to not be in scope wherever it is not definitely assigned, and for a binding variable to always be definitely unassigned at the point of its declaration.

We can construct a set of rules for the natural scope of these variables. To start with, we say that each expression e gives rise to two sets of binding variables, e.T and e.F, along with rules for when one or the other of these sets are included in the scope of a statement or expression, over all the expression forms. If not otherwise defined, e.T = e.F = {} — most expressions (including all current expression forms) make available no new bindings. We also define a set of binding variables to additionally be in scope for certain expressions or statements via the “include in” clauses below.

  • If e is x matches P:

    e.T = { binding variables from P }
    e.F = { }
  • If e is x && y:

    e.T = union(x.T, y.T)
    e.F = intersection(x.F, y.F)
    include x.T in y
  • If e is x || y:

    e.T = intersection(x.T, y.T)
    e.F = union(x.F, y.F)
    include x.F in y
  • If e is x ? y : z:

    e.T = union(intersect(y.T, z.T),
                intersect(x.T, z.T),
                intersect(x.F, y.T))
    e.F = union(intersect(y.F, z.F),
                intersect(x.T, z.F),
                intersect(x.F, y.F))
    include x.T in y
    include x.F in z
  • If e is (x):

    e.T = x.T
    e.F = x.F
  • If e is !x:

    e.T = x.F
    e.F = x.T

We can do the same for statement forms:

  • For if (x) y else z:

    include x.T in y
    include x.F in z
  • For if (x) return/throw; z

    include x.T in return/throw
    include x.F in z
  • For while (x) y:

    include x.T in y
  • For for (a; b; c) d:

    include b.T in c
    include b.T in d
  • For switch (x) { ... case P: y; case Q: ... }

    include binding variables from P in y

Further, union and intersection should be limited to avoid conflicts. The union function should be a disjoint union: it is an error if any binding varible is present in both sets — otherwise, expressions like x matches Foo(var x) && y matches Bar(var x) would include two different variables called x in the same scope. Similarly, for intersect, it is an error if the same binding variable is present in both sets but with different types.

Fallthrough and OR patterns

While one could make an argument that fallthrough in switch was the wrong default, the problem fallthrough aims to solve — treating multiple items similarly without duplicating the code — were real, and are still relevant when our case labels get richer.

Patterns that generate binding variables require some refinements to the above scoping rules. For example:

case Foo(int x):
case Bar(float x):

would be an error, just as x matches Foo(int x) || x.matches Bar(float x) would be.

However, there’s no reason why we can’t make this work, with x in scope in s:

case Foo(int x):
case Bar(int x):

This is analogous to the disjunction y matches Foo(int x) || y matches Bar(int x).

Similarly, in:

case Foo(int x, int y):
case Bar(int x):

the binding variable y would not be available in s, because we can’t rely on it having a value on all control paths, but x can still be available in s. These restrictions are a straightforward refinement of the scoping rules presented earlier.

A more limited form of fallthrough is OR patterns:

case P1 || P2:

Which is equivalent to:

case P1:
case P2:

We might consider prohibiting fallthrough but allowing OR patterns (in which case we’d probably require that all OR patterns declare exactly the same set of binding variables.)

Guards, compound patterns, and continue

Nested patterns, such as:

case Point(0, 0):

express compound conditions; we’re testing that the target is a Point, and that both its x and y components match the constant pattern 0. While nested patterns are powerful, they have their limits; we can’t easily test for whether a point is, say, on the diagonal. We could express this with a guard:

case Point(var x, var y) && x == y:

Alternately, we could express compound conditions by pushing the subordinate test into the body, and permitting the continue control flow construct in switches, which would indicate we want to break out of the existing case arm, and resume matching at the next case label:

case Point(var x, var y):
    if (x != y)

(Note that nested patterns desugar to guards, and guards desugar to continue, so we are likely to have to implement all these mechanisms internally anyway.)

Dead code

In some cases, the compiler may be able to prove that a case is unreachable, such as:

switch (x) {
    case Comparable c: ... break;
    case Integer i: // can't reach this

In these cases, the compiler will issue an error (just as with unreachable catch clauses.)

Switch expressions

The other major direction in which we would like to extend switch is to given it an expression form:

float overtimeFactor = switch (day) {
    case SATURDAY -> 1.5;
    case SUNDAY -> 2;
    default -> 1;

While statement switches need not be exhaustive (just as if statements need not have an else), expression switches must be (as the expression must evaluate to something.) Exhaustiveness can always be provided via a default arm, but sometimes we may want to do better. The compiler can use class hierarchy information, as well as sealing information, to prove exhaustiveness. (Since the type hiearchy can change between compile and run time, the compiler will still want to insert a catch-all throwing default even if it deems the analysis exhaustive.)

Unrestricted fallthrough makes less sense in an expression switch, but OR patterns still do:

int days = switch (month) {
    case JANUARY
         || MARCH
         || MAY
         || JULY
         || AUGUST
         || OCTOBER
         || DECEMBER -> 31;
     case FEBRUARY -> 28;
     case APRIL
         || JUNE
         || SEPTEMBER
         || NOVEMBER -> 30;

A switch expression is a poly expression, and pushes its target type down into the switch arms (just as we do with conditional expressions.)

Mixing statements and expressions

While the common case with a switch expression is that the RHS of a case label is a single expression, occasionally the result may not be constructible in this way (or construction of the result might require side-effects, such as debugging output). Other languages usually handle this with block expressions; we can construct a limited form of block expression for use in expression switch by coopting the break keyword, as in these examples:

case String s -> {
    System.out.println("It's a string!");
    break s.toUpperCase();

case Flooble f -> {
    FloobleDescriptor fd = new FloobleDescriptor();
    break fd;

There is some potential ambiguity between label-break and result-break here, but working these out is practical.

Throw expressions

It is not uncommon that one or more arms of a switch expression will result in a transfer-of-control operation, such as:

int size = switch (x) {
    case Collection c -> c.size();
    case String s -> s.length();
    default -> throw new IllegalArgumentException(...);

Even though throw is a statement, not an expression, the intent here is clear, so we want to allow throw (and possibly other transfer-of-control operations) in this context.

Targetless switch

In the theme of elevating switch as the generalization of the ternary conditional operator, we may also wish to allow a simplified form of switch where there is no switch target, and all case labels are boolean expressions:

String fizzbuzz(int n) {
    boolean byThree = n % 3 == 0;
    boolean byFive = n % 5 == 0;
    return switch {
        case byThree && byFive -> "fizzbuzz";
        case byThree -> "fizz";
        case byFive -> "buzz";
        default -> Integer.toString(n);