JEP draft: Better-defined JVM class file validation

OwnerDan Smith
StatusClosed / Withdrawn
Componentspecification / vm
Discussionvalhalla dash dev at openjdk dot java dot net
Created2021/05/24 21:59
Updated2023/12/22 00:18


Update JVMS to more clearly define the requirements and timing of JVM class file validation. Align HotSpot with these rules.


Specification and implementation updates will impact format checking, which occurs during class loading, and verification, which occurs between class loading and class initialization.

Special attention will be given to the following areas:

Most HotSpot changes will be subtle, as necessary to reconcile differences between the specification and implementation.

APIs that provide information about loaded classes (such as core reflection and JDI) may also need to make subtle adjustments to their validation behavior.


The changes will not address any anomalies in constant pool resolution or runtime execution—this effort is only concerned with class file validation.

The use of Prolog rules to specify verification since Java SE 6 can make some parts of JVMS difficult to read, but this JEP will not alter that approach.

The specifications of APIs that operate on class files, like core reflection, often elide many details about API-specific validation behavior. This JEP will not attempt to fill in those details.


The Valhalla Project is pursuing significant changes to the Java programming model and the Java Virtual Machine. It anticipates extending the class file format with a number of new opcodes, constant pool entries, descriptor forms, verification types, special methods, and attributes.

In anticipation of these changes, it will be useful to get the rules for class file verification on solid footing.

Broadly, the JVM processes class files in stages; at each stage, certain categories of validation rules are enforced.

This JEP is focused on the validation rules enforced by format checking and verification. It also has a subtle impact on the rules some APIs and tools are expected to enforce.

Historically, the lines between different validation stages were sometimes blurred, and some anomalies persist in the JVM specification. Readers and implementers of the specification may be left with questions such as:

This JEP addresses these and similar questions by carefully reviewing both the specification and longstanding HotSpot behavior, clarifying the specification text where necessary, and reconciling any behavioral differences.


This work can be organized into four different areas of focus, as outlined below.

In addition to the specification and behavioral changes described here, this is an opportunity to review the treatment of format checking and verification in JVMS and the HotSpot implementation code, potentially identifying further discrepancies or unnecessary complexity.

Format checking

Chapter 4 of JVMS will be updated to distinguish between assertions that are meant to be enforced as format checks ("The constant_pool entry at that index must be a CONSTANT_Class_info structure") and assertions that are merely informational ("the class_index item should name a class or an array type, not an interface"). The conditions under which predefined attributes are recognized and checked will also be clarified. The ACC_SUPER flag, which has no effect since Java 8, will no longer be specified.

Two changes to HotSpot behavior with respect to attribute checking will be made:

javac will be updated to no longer set ACC_SUPER.

Special methods

To improve consistency of JVMS and align with longstanding HotSpot behavior, the definitions of special methods will be revised to include any methods with the names <init> or <clinit>; a number of special restrictions apply to these method declarations and references to them. The constraints on names and descriptors in references to methods (like Methodref and InvokeDynamic) will be clarified.

In HotSpot, the following validation behaviors are changed:

Optional attributes

Eleven attributes—most of which are for use by the Java programming language or debuggers—are considered "optional" and have no impact on JVM behavior, but are subject to certain restrictions during format checking. In some cases, the specification makes assertions about these attributes that implementations cannot enforce, leaving the implementations to approximate the desired behavior with ad hoc checks.

Specifically, the contents of the following optional attributes are currently subject to some format checks:

Meanwhile, JVMS requires that a number of other optional attributes be ignored during format checking. The rationale for distinguishing between the two categories is not clear, and in practice, some checks do end up being performed on these "ignored" attributes.

For simplicity and improved performance, format checking will be changed to uniformly parse the names and lengths of all optional attributes, but otherwise completely ignore their contents. (Rules related to the existence of the attributes—e.g., that at most one Exceptions attribute is allowed per method—will continue to be enforced.)

Where HotSpot provides an interface for accessing these attributes (such as via JDI or core reflection), validation errors can be thrown by the API, as necessary, when the API is invoked—sometime after the class is loaded.


The StackMapTable attribute and the exception_table of the Code attribute must be interpreted with respect to the bytecode of the corresponding Code attribute. But because bytecode is not parsed until verification, many specified format checks on StackMapTable and exception_table are, in HotSpot, verification-time checks.

To resolve this inconsistency, the specification of verification will be updated to formally include all validation of StackMapTable and exception_table contents, and the corresponding format checking assertions will be expressed as recommendations, not rules.

In addition, the specification will be updated to clarify the relationship between the static and structural constraints on bytecode (JVMS 4.9) and the verification algorithms (JVMS 4.10). Various bugs in the rules for verification by type checking will be fixed, and a number of redundant assertions will be removed (such as the check, already enforced at class loading, that a class's superclass is not final).

In HotSpot, the following behavioral changes will be made:

Risks and Assumptions

Changing JVM validation behavior is often a risk, because it may cause legacy class files to fail with new errors, or, more subtly, new class files with old version numbers to be accepted, but then fail on older JVMs.

In general, the HotSpot changes proposed in this JEP are narrow in scope, often in corner cases that real world code is unlikely to probe. And many of the changes only modify the type of error being thrown or the timing of an error check. That said, the most likely areas of concern are:

Besides the risk to JVM users, there is some risk that, by relaxing the constraints on optional attributes, downstream tools will be surprised by unvalidated attribute contents in class files that can be successfully loaded.

These risks need to be balanced against the cost of the extra complexity required to fully specify and maintain longstanding, often ad hoc HotSpot behavior.


These changes are a soft prerequisite to new JVM feature work in Valhalla, including JEP 401.